Beyond Benign

Higher Ed

Green Chemistry University Curriculum

All Course Materials for the Green Chemistry University Curriculum

The Yale-UNIDO University Curriculum is a semester long course developed in collaboration with Beyond Benign. This free course is designed for undergraduate students and teaches (i) how the principles of green chemistry can help resolve global human health and environmental issues, (ii) how green chemistry functions and (iii) how it is implemented. The curriculum was developed as part of the Global Green Chemistry Initiative (GGCI), a joint initiative between the Center for Green Chemistry and Engineering at Yale and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), and was funded by GEF (Global Environment Facility). The GGCI consists of six primary projects to raise awareness and provide instruction and information on green chemistry. You can find more information at https://www.global-green-chemistry-initiative.com/

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All Course Materials for the Green Chemistry University Curriculum

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Course Syllabus

This course will explore the fundamentals of chemistry, how chemistry can help address global human health and environmental issues. It provides an introduction to the foundational principles of chemistry including atoms, molecules, chemical reactions, stoichiometry, chemical/physical properties, and periodic table trends. This knowledge is then related to various environmental and human health issues, and develop the appropriate solutions using green chemistry approaches covered in the course.

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Course Syllabus

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Lecture 01 – Course Introduction and Accidents and Their Unintentional Consequences

In this lecture students will learn about the course requirements and the innovative capabilities of Green Chemistry which will be covered during next 14 weeks. Students will also learn that accidents can be reduced or prevented with a thoughtful design using Green Chemistry principles.

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Lesson Plan: Lecture 1

PowerPoint Presentation: Lecture 1

Content Preview: Course Introduction, Chemical Plant Disasters, Consumer Products (DDT and BPA/Endocrine Disruptors), Why do Green Chemistry?

Optional/Supplemental Readings: Bhopal Plant Disaster Situation Summary

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Lecture 01 – Course Introduction and Accidents and Their Unintentional Consequences

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Lecture 02 – Green Chemistry: Reimagining Chemistry

In this class students will learn the definition of Green Chemistry and reflect on the last 25 years of Green Chemistry innovation. They will also explore the main drivers to implement Green Chemistry throughout the world and some of the latest Green Chemistry trends.

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Lesson Plan: Lecture 2

PowerPoint Presentation: Lecture 2

Content Preview: What is Green Chemistry? 12 Principles of Green Chemistry, What drives Green Chemistry? 25 Years of Progress and The Future of Green Chemistry

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Lecture 02 – Green Chemistry: Reimagining Chemistry

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Lecture 03 – 12 Principles of Green Chemistry

In this lecture students will learn about the 12 Green Chemistry Principles and explore industrial examples of implementing the principles.

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Lesson Plan 3: 12 Principles of Green Chemistry

PowerPoint Presentation 3: 12 Principles of Green Chemistry

Class Exercises: Writing the 12 Principles and E-Factor

Reading: Presidential Green Chemistry Awards 1996-2016

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Lecture 03 – 12 Principles of Green Chemistry

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Lecture 04 – It All Starts at the Beginning

In this lecture students will refresh their fundamental chemistry knowledge: periodic table and atoms. Knowing fundamentals is vital for understanding the Green Chemistry reactions which will be covered later in the semester.

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Lesson Plan 4: It All Starts at the Beginning

PowerPoint Presentation 4: It All Starts at the Beginning

Content Preview: Periodic Table, Why is it useful,  Reading the periodic table, Isotopic Symbols, Atoms to Elements, Periodic Trend, Connection to bonding, Elements: Relevancy to Green Chemistry

Handout: The History of the Atom

Class Exercise: Periodic Table Battleship Game

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Lecture 04 – It All Starts at the Beginning

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Lecture 05 – The Molecule

In this lecture, students will be introduced to molecules and how to properly draw and assign nomenclature. This lecture will focus on the fundamental ways to identify molecules and extrapolate to organic nomenclature. Since the majority of the content in later lectures will focus on organic molecules and their functional groups, it is important that student have the skills to name and draw organic structures.

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Lesson Plan 5: The Molecule

PowerPoint Presentation 5: The Molecule

Content Preview: Molecules and Compounds, Drawing Molecules, Nomenclature of Molecules, Functional Groups, Properties

Homework #1 & Homework #1 Answer Key

Class Exercise: Molecules and Answer Key

Lesson: Chemical Hazard Awareness and Answer Key

Handouts: Organic Compounds Nomenclature, Organic Molecule Nomenclature Steps, IUPAC Naming System

Activity: Polymers and Models

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Lecture 05 – The Molecule

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Lecture 06 – Stoichiometry and Reactions

In this lecture, students will continue to build their chemistry fundamentals. They will practice balancing equations and different types of chemical reactions. Finally, they will learn about biomimicry – an inspiration from nature to build new molecules and products.

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Lesson Plan 6: Stoichiometry and Reactions

PowerPoint Presentation 6: Stoichiometry and Reactions 

Content Preview: Stoichiometry & Calculations, Reactions, Important Named Reactions, Lab vs. Nature, Green Chemistry in Perspective, Reagents, solvents, and reactors, Biomimicry

Class Exercises: Reactions Lab, Stoichmetry Challenge, Biomimicry Matching Game

Activities: Biomimicry and Empirical Formula

Case Study: Vitamin C Clock Reaction

Supplemental PowerPoint: Brief Intro To Green Chemistry and Biomimicry

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Lecture 06 – Stoichiometry and Reactions

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Lecture 07 – Limiting Reagent, Yield, and Atom Economy

In this lecture, students will be introduced to the concepts of limiting reagents, yield, and atom economy. Building upon their working knowledge of balancing equations and stoichiometry, students will apply those core skills to determine the efficiency of reactions based upon molecular factors. This lecture will focus on the fundamental ways molecules are evaluated on their efficacy and extrapolate to the Green Chemistry metrics. Since the majority of the content in this lecture focuses on organic molecules and their functional groups, it is important that student have these skills reinforced by continuing to name and draw organic structures when performing calculations.

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Lesson Plan 7: Limiting Reagent, Yield, and Atom Economy

Presentation 7: Limiting Reagent, Yield, and Atom Economy

Content Preview: Limiting Reagent, Theoretical and Percent Yield, Current norm for reaction efficiency, Atom Economy, New Green Chemistry reaction metric, E-Factor

Homework 2: Stoichiometry and Reactions & Key

Class Exercise: Green Synthesis of Ibprofen & Key

Supplemental Materials: The EcoScale as a Framework for Undergraduate Green Chemistry Teaching and Assessment

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Lecture 07 – Limiting Reagent, Yield, and Atom Economy

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Lecture 09 – Sustainability

In this lecture students will learn about what Sustainability is and the common misconceptions among individuals today. The lecture covers the typical myths about Sustainability and provides evidence to justify. Furthermore, the lecture will cover the importance on sustainability in business and the various methods in which green chemistry positively effects business operations.

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Lesson Plan 9: Sustainability

Presentation 9: Sustainability

Content Preview: Sustainability – Myths and Facts, Society, Economy, and the Environment, Business and Sustainability, Applying Green Chemistry to Management, Different Models of Sustainability

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Lecture 09 – Sustainability

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Lecture 10 – Life Cycle Assessment

In this lecture students will learn about Life Cycle Assessment. The lecture covers the standard framework, theory and real examples of Life Cycle Assessment. LCA is complex process and the purpose of this class is to introduce them to the importance and strengths of performing Life Cycle Assessments.

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Lesson Plan 10: Life Cycle Assessment

Presentation 10: Life Cycle Assessment

Content  Preview: Life Cycle Thinking and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), LCA Example: Laundry Detergent, LCA and Green Chemistry, LCA examples and discussions: i-STAT blood analyzing & Styrofoam take-out container

 

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Lecture 10 – Life Cycle Assessment

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Lecture 11 – Renewable Feedstocks

In this class students will learn about renewable feedstocks. More specifically, the lecture will focus on what a renewable feedstock is and the criteria necessary to identify appropriate materials for future feedstock.

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Lesson Plan 11: Renewable Feedstocks

PowerPoint Presentation 11: Renewable Feedstocks

Content Preview: What is a Feedstock? Renewable vs. Depleting, Current feedstock consumption, Types of Renewable Feedstocks, CO2, Biomass, Agricultural, Industrial Applications, Challenges and Opportunities

Supplemental Materials: Bakery Waste to Chemicals, Bio-based Polycarbonate, Food Waste Biomass, Polymers of Limone Oxide, Ultrasonic and Catalyst Free Expodiation of Limonene

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Lecture 11 – Renewable Feedstocks

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Lecture 12 – Renewable Feedstocks for Energy

In this lecture students will learn about the role chemistry has on providing a sustainable future. The lecture covers the topic of energy and more sustainable approaches for energy consumption.

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Lesson Plan 12: Renewable Feedstocks for Energy

PowerPoint Presentation 12: Renewable Feedstocks for Energy

Content Preview: Petroleum industry (Energy sources, Energy consumption & demand, Meeting the future energy demands), Biofuels from First Generation Corn-based ethanol & Biodiesel to  Second generation biofuels Cellulosics, oils, grasses to finally  Third and Fourth generation biofuels, Algae

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Lecture 12 – Renewable Feedstocks for Energy

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Lecture 13 – Real-World Cases in Green Chemistry

In this class students will learn about successful Green Chemistry technologies that have been awarded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Students will have the opportunity to research previous winners and discuss with their fellow classmates.

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Lesson Plan 13: Real-World Cases in Green Chemistry

PowerPoint Presentation 13: Real-World Cases in Green Chemistry

Content Preview: What are the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards? PGCCA Case Studies:

  • 2016: Newlight Technologies, AirCarbon: Greenhouse Gas Transformed into High-Performance Thermoplastic

  • 2012: Buckman International, Inc.: Enzymes Reduce the Energy and Wood Fiber Required to Manufacture High-Quality Paper and Paperboard

  • 2011: Professor Bruce H. Lipshutz, Towards Ending Our Dependence on Organic Solvents

  • 2008: SiGNa Chemistry, Inc.: New Stabilized Alkali Metals for Safer, Sustainable Syntheses

  • 2005: Archer Daniels Midland and Novozymes, NovaLipidTM: Low Trans Fats and Oils Produced by Enzymatic Interesterification of Vegetable Oils Using Lipozyme®

  • 2002: Pfizer re-design of Sertraline (ZOLOFT®)

  • 1996: Dow Chemical Company Designing an Environmentally Safe Marine Antifoulant

Class Activity and Materials: Real-World Cases

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Lecture 13 – Real-World Cases in Green Chemistry

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Lecture 14 – Designing for Recycling and Degradation

In this class students will learn various processes for recycling and how to leverage it to think of the possibilities to design compounds to biodegrade.

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Lesson Plan 14: Designing for Recycling and Degradation

PowerPoint Presentation 14: Designing for Recycling and Degradation

Content Preview: The Waste Treatment Pyramid, Reduced Solvent Use, Waste as a Feedstock, Biodegradation, Design rules/rules of thumb for biodegradation, Designing Products and/or Waste to Biodegrade

Homework 3: Estimating Biodegradability and Key

Class Exercise: Design for Biodegradability and Predicting Biodegradation

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Lecture 14 – Designing for Recycling and Degradation

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Lecture 15 – Catalysis

In this lecture students will learn about the importance of catalysis and the added benefits it provides in all levels of chemistry. Students will see how catalysts make reactions more efficient by means of the activation energy. More importantly, students will be introduced to alternative types of catalysis that Green Chemistry utilizes to create more environmentally responsible processes.

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Lesson Plan 15: Catalysis

PowerPoint Presentation 15: Catalysis

Content Preview: What is Catalysis? Why its important and improves performance, Categories of Catalysis, Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous, Greener Alternatives for Catalysis, Current Trends for the Next Generation of Catalysts, Additional applications for catalysts

 

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Lecture 15 – Catalysis

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Lecture 16 – Solvents: Understanding Their Role

In this class students will learn the roles and responsibilities that solvent have in chemical transformations. The advantage and disadvantages will be discussed followed the various categories of solvent used today. After learning about the effects of solvent use, student will be introduced to the need for alternative solvents and their role in advancing technology, humans, and the environment.

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Lesson Plan 16: Solvents: Understanding Their Role

PowerPoint Presentation 16: Solvents: Understanding Their Role

Content Preview: Learning objectives and outcomes, Understanding solvents, Solvent selection guides, Strategies for solvent replacement

Supplemental Materials: CHEM21 Solvent Selection Guide

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Lecture 16 – Solvents: Understanding Their Role

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Lecture 17 – Working without Solvents

In this class students will learn the possibilities to perform chemical transformations without the presence of an organic solvent. Students will explore alternative methodologies ranging from supercritical fluids to solventless conditions. The goal of this lecture is to not only inform student of alternative methodologies, but to provide real example of how these approaches are used today.

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Lesson Plan 17: Working without Solvents

PowerPoint Presentation 17: Working without Solvents

Content Preview: Global Solvent Market, Chemistry without organic solvents, Supercritical Fluids, Ionic Liquids, Aqueous Chemistry, Solvent-Free processes, Mechanochemistry

Homework 4: Solvent Substitution and Key

Readings: Solvent Free Reactivity and Review of Aqueous Organic Reactions

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Lecture 17 – Working without Solvents

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Lecture 19: Green Chemistry and Energy

In this lecture students will learn about the current state of energy production and consumption. Traditional sources of energy include non-renewable sources such as coal and oil. Renewable energy sources will be explored such as biofuels, solar cells and fuel cells. Students will learn how energy is used within the laboratory to heat, cool and for processing, along with alternative energy sources for performing synthetic reactions. The next generation of energy applications will also be discussed.

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Lesson Plan 19: Green Chemistry and Energy

PowerPoint Plan 19: Green Chemistry and Energy

Content Preview: Current state of energy consumption: Globally, Source of energy: Power plant – coal, oil, natural gas, Renewable – Biofuels, solar cell, Fuel cells, hydro, etc., Energy in the Laboratory (Thermal, Cooling, Distillation, Equipment, Synthesis), New Modern Applications

Class Exercise: Synthesis of Biodiesel and Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

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Lecture 19: Green Chemistry and Energy

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Lecture 20 – Green Analytical Chemistry

In this class students will learn about Green Analytical Chemistry. The lecture includes information about analytical method assessment, including tools and techniques for assessing the greenness of methods. The lecture addresses sample preparation, analytical techniques and methods including chromatography and spectroscopy, and Process Analytical Technology (PAT).

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Lesson Plan 20: Green Analytical Chemistry

PowerPoint Presentation 20: Green Analytical Chemistry

Content Preview: What is Green Analytical Chemistry? Analytical Method Assessment, Tools and Techniques for Assessing Greenness of Analytical Methods, Sample Preparation, Analytical Techniques and Methods (Chromatography, Spectroscopy, Mass spectrometry) and Process Analytical Technology (PAT)

Reading: Green Chemistry Metrics

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Lecture 20 – Green Analytical Chemistry

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Lecture 21 – Introduction to Toxicology

This lecture introduces toxicology. Students will learn different toxicology terms, including definition, types of toxic compounds, and factors influencing toxicity. At the end of the lecture, students will revise potential toxicology endpoints to molecular features which are derived from the periodic table. In addition to periodic table trends, the lecture also introduces the concept of pKa and links it to a skin irritation through the class activity.

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Lesson Plan 21: Introduction to Toxicology

Presentation 21: Introduction to Toxicology

Content Preview: Toxicology definition, Toxicity types, Factors affecting chemical toxicity, Toxicology and the periodic table

Class Exercise: Aqueous and Lipid Solubility, pKa and Skin Irritation with Answer Keys

Handout: Log P, Log Kow and pKa

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Lecture 21 – Introduction to Toxicology

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Lecture 22 – Chemical Exposure and Dosage

In this lecture, students learn components of risk – hazard and exposure and how green chemistry aims to minimize hazard, which ultimately leads to minimizing the risk.  This lecture also defines the concept of dose and how the toxicity testing is currently done through dose-response curves. A small class activity on the dose-response curve for solvents allows student to use their newly learned knowledge on dose-response in practice and a quiz at the end summarizes the key concepts covered during this class period.

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Lesson Plan 22: Chemical Exposure and Dosage

Presentation 22: Chemical Exposure and Dosage

Content Preview: Risk Assessment, Hazard, Exposure, Dose, Dose Response Curve, LOAEL, NOAEL, and Reference Dose and Tools for Hazard Characterization

Homework 5: Chemical Exposure and Dose with Key 

Class Exercise: Lettuce Seed Assay and Daphnia Bioassay LD 50

Reading: Toxicology Dose Response

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Lecture 22 – Chemical Exposure and Dosage

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Lecture 23 – Molecular Toxicology

This lecture introduces Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) concepts and how chemists can take advantage of physicochemical parameters like logP, molecular weight, and vapor pressure to redesign molecules that won’t absorb into the body, limit distribution, and facilitate metabolism and excretion. These concepts are reinforced by an in-class exercise that explores potential absorption routes by benzene. The lecture also explores new approaches to hazard minimization through molecular design.

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Lesson Plan 23: Molecular Toxicology

Presentation 23: Molecular Toxicology

Content Preview: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME), Characteristics of an “ideal chemical”, Approaches to hazard minimization through molecular design

Class Exercise: ADME and Rational Design & Electrophilic Reactions with Answer Keys

Reading for Exercise: Electrophiles in Predictive Toxicology

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Lecture 23 – Molecular Toxicology

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Lecture 24 – Designing Future Products with Reduced Toxicity

This lecture continues to explore different approaches to hazard minimization by changing molecular design. After several practical examples and a case study, students will learn about current methods that scientists use to assess chemical toxicity on a large scale. In vivo and In vitro studies are discussed.

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Lesson Plan 24: Designing Future Products with Reduced Toxicity

PowerPoint Presentation 24: Designing Future Products with Reduced Toxicity

Content Preview: Approaches to hazard minimization through molecular design, Case study: Codexis, Alternatives to animal testing, QSAR-Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship, The nexus of chemistry and toxicology, Sources of high throughput data

Homework 6: Toxicology with examples and answer key

Class Exercise: Using ProTox Class, Glutathione as a Tool, Crossroads of Computation

Reading: Selection of Chemical Alternatives

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Lecture 24 – Designing Future Products with Reduced Toxicity

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Lecture 25 & 26: Safe Chemical Design Game

The last two lectures, lecture 25 and lecture 26, allow students to explore safer chemical design and ADME through educational online computer game. The game encourages students to think like professional chemical designers and to develop a chemical product with respect to function and improved human and environmental health. The developed worksheet leads students through the game challenges and tests their understanding of the content as they progress through the game. The eight questions in the worksheet can be used as an individual assignment or as an in-class discussion. These questions are designed to be answered as students play the game.

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Lesson Plan 25 & 26: Safe Chemical Design Game

Class Exercise: Safer Chemical Design Game and Answer Key

Reading: The Safer Chemical Design Game

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Lecture 25 & 26: Safe Chemical Design Game

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